About Jasper can speak and write endlessly. This "art gallery of nature" -
The beauty of Jasper - evidence of wealth and generosity of nature. Rendezvous
with jasper - a charge of vivacity, is to break into a secret gallery of nature.
Sometimes it seems that Jasper - is a chronicle of the earth and all its
developments on the ground and left a unique trace. Very often a combination of
flowers and colors of jasper are so complex and beautiful that polished stone
loom these pictures, as if filled with talented artist's hand. Products from it
- the embodiment of skill, hard work, spiritual man.
And for an artist - stone-cutters, and rock historian, and ethnographer,
studying the craft stone-cutters, and an art - Jasper is actively involved in
human life, excites the scientific, technical, creative thinking. Contemplating
jasper, falls under the "mood" of its color, you see and read in it something of
their own, personal: so rich in bizarre chain of associations, which invariably
are born at a meeting with this stone.
Jasper symbolizes human life, jasper thread - a metaphor for human life
Jasper is among the most popular gems, known to primitive man.
Jasper - is a thick well polished siliceous rocks with various inclusions,
including chalcedony, as well as oxides of iron and aluminum.
The number of these impurities may reach 20%, which causes a considerable
variety of different color jaspers. Not by chance the name of the stone goes
back to the ancient Greek "jasper" - colored. Jasper is very firm. On the Mohs
scale, its hardness is equal to - 6,5 - 7, density - 2.6 g / cc In our country
there are about 200 species of jasper.
Jaspers distinguished not only by color (red, green, blue) and the nature of
color (mottled, banded, striped), but the place of production.
Today in Russia, about 500 field-precious jasper. Half jasper treasure comes
from the Urals. The land is rich in jasper. She has generously endowed the
desert of Nubia, Egypt, the mountains of Asia, North America.
But neither the reserves nor the beauty and richness of pattern and colors they
do not compare with the Ural Jaspers. Gifted with an inexhaustible imagination
of a painter - Nature has endowed the Ural stone most vivid colors. From cold to
warm. Some uniformly colored, in other strikes a motley mix of different colors,
forming a diverse picture. Colors are deep, saturated, bright.
In the 18 century with the discovery of rich deposits of jade in the Urals,
Transbaikalia historians connect the flowering of all stone-cutting industry in
Russia. Peterhof Lapidary Works and Yekaterinburg were doing at the time of
jasper hundreds of different products. These included vases, candelabra, table
tops, desk sets, fireplaces. In St. - Petersburg stored unique jasper vase,
whose diameter is 5 meters, and weight is 11 tons! Many articles of jade, made
in Russia in 18 - 19 centuries. Can be seen in many museums and castles of
Medieval world canonized jasper, giving it a place among the twelve "sacred"
stones, worthy priests' garments. She went into the decoration of churches,
church utensils, clothing and accessories clergy.
Lapis, sodium aluminosilicate and calcium bright - blue, violet -
blue or greenish-blue color. Lapis is unstable against high temperature,
pressure, acids. Hardness on the Mohs scale -3,5 - 4,0; density -1.3 -2.7 g /
In the blue color of the uniform of the highest quality, most often
distributed in patches and stripes.
of lapis lazuli from Chile and the Baikal region decreases high content of white
calcite. Fine inclusions of pyrite, conversely, are considered desirable
impurity - they decorate the stone and at the same time proving its natural
Rock, consisting of almost 40% of lapis lazuli, called lapis - lazuli. The
richest of its deposits are in Afghanistan - a valuable niili (indigo - blue),
less valuable Asmann (sky - blue). A similar deposit is available on the Pamirs.
Malo - Bystrinskoye lapis lazuli deposit in Russia is located on the south -
west of Lake Baikal. Well-known deposits of lapis lazuli exist in China, Tibet,
India, Burma, in Africa, Canada and SShA.
Bogateyshimi deposits of this mineral have the Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Lapis
lazuli mines in Badakhshan - the most ancient of the existing mines.
Name of stone that appeared in medieval times, dates back to the Arabic
word "Azul" - sky - blue. It is no accident lapis lazuli in the East called the
"stone of heaven." In Russia, this rock affectionately dubbed "Lazurik".
Lapis is a jewelry and stones, whose value depends on the intensity of
color. The most prized bright blue or purple lapis lazuli.
Malachite was known already in antiquity. The characteristic green color of
malachite attach copper compounds. Name it comes from the Greek "malahs -
mallow, or its name alludes to the ease of processing. Malachite - a soft
mineral. Hardness on the Mohs scale - 3,5 - 4,0; density - 4.0 g / cc at
In nature, malachite is most common in the form of nodular masses, which have
a concentric structure. That is why the drunk and slices of malachite visible
characteristic concentric patterns. This allows for the malachite in the old
days was called "peacock stone. Tinge of malachite vary from turquoise, emerald
- green and blue - green to black - green.
After the opening of the Urals in 1635 the famous malachite mines, the mineral
was rightly regarded as the "Russian rock". Here malachite mined for lining
fireplaces, table tops and vases Malachite Hall of the Winter Palace, as well as
the columns of St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg.
To date, the Urals malachite deposits have been exhausted. Now the main
supplier of malachite on the world market is Zaire (Kolwezi). In ancient times,
malachite was used for decorations. In the 18 century, from the Ural malachite
made small decorative items, and in the early 19 th century began to make the
big boxes and vases. The technique of "Russian Mosaic" are faced with Malachite
and George halls of the Winter Palace in St. - Petersburg.
Jade - a translucent mineral, white and green. Particular strength give him the
finest crystal fibers, matted and twisted like wool felt. Jade, as well as jade,
are compounds of silica, only as impurities in the case of jade stand compounds
of magnesium, iron, calcium.
Nephritis more litters than jadeite. The hardness on the Mohs scale of its
-6,0-6,5. Density - 3.0.
The color of jade lies within the green and white. The ancient Chinese wrote
about color jade: "The five colors in it - as white as cream, yellow, like
chestnuts, cooked in boiling water, black as shoe polish or lacquer red as the
crest of a rooster, but the most common is green." Upon impact plate jade
produces a melodic sound - a rare feature among the minerals. From the most
remote times, from the depths of millennia before our time, jade is considered
the national stone of China. In this country, he was known in the 2 nd century
BC Chinese deified nephritis. In the 12 century on the properties of jade was
written treatise, consisting of 100 volumes and color illustrations. Jade
attributed to five main advantages of meeting the five qualities of the soul:
its soft luster shows the softness of the heart, its hardness and resistance to
speak of moderation and justice, long sound means a solid knowledge of science,
but it demonstrates the immutability of the courage and, finally, its internal
structure -- emblem of purity.
For a long time the main center of jade mining was Burma, where annually
exported over 250 tons of this precious stone. In addition to Burma and China,
the jade deposits exist in Central Asia, in Germany, Switzerland, Italy and
India. In Russia, individual clusters of jade green - gray color were found in
the southern Urals.
In Russia, the second after the malachite-precious stones of the Urals is
deservedly considered rhodonite. His name from the Greek (Rodon) - "Rose",
"pink", which points to scarlet, crimson or pink color of this stone. It is no
accident in the East rhodonite for its characteristic color called "stone of the
dawn." For rhodonite characterized by thin black branching veins, consisting of
oxides of manganese. In a pink background, they form intricate designs and
patterns, sometimes folding in real "landscape." In Russia, rhodonite also
called "ruby", "pink spar" or "rhodonite-orlets." Hardness on the Mohs scale -
5,5 - 6,5; density - 3.6 g / cu. see rhodonite deposits known in the Urals (Malosidelnikovskoe
near Yekaterinburg) in India and Canada, Mexico and YUAR.S ancient times to the
present day of rhodonite cut luxurious vases, bowls, desk sets. Peter and Paul
Cathedral in St. - Petersburg is one of the stone tombs, which lie under the
king's remains, carved from a single block of rhodonite.
His weight - 7ton.